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Epiretinal Membrane (ERM)

ERM = abnormal fibrocellular proliferation on the surface of the ILM after anomalous PVD.


  • No gender preference

  • Prevalence: 10% average

  • Bilateral incidence: 15% average


  1. Idiopathic – from PVD.

  2. RD

  3. Vascular occlusion

  4. Uveitis

  5. Trauma

  6. Intraocular surgery

  7. Intraocular tumours

Symptoms: Asymptomatic or distortion or blurred vision (if a/w lamellar macular hole or macular oedema.

Investigation: OCT macula


  1. Observation

  2. Pars plana vitrectomy + epiretinal membrane peel +/- internal limiting membrane peel +/- air/gas

Interesting points:

  • Known by many terms – epimacular membrane, macular pucker, cellophane maculopathy.

  • OCT based classification (Konidaris et al. 2015)

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